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The International Committee for monitoring Assisted Reproduction Technologies (ICMART) calculated that the number of children conceived by assisted reproduction technologies has reached 5 million. New techniques are incorporated into clinical practices to increase the success rates in the In Vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments.
Various studies suggest that the culture media employed during IVF cycles impacts implantation, embryo quality, and pregnancy rates. Many hypotheses have emerged supporting these studies. But still, the connection between medium composition and IVF treatment is under investigation.
In recent days, the evolution of embryo culture systems has improved the IVF results. In the past 50 years, there have been numerous contributions from studies conducted on mammals. The main considerations in the media are based on animal models. The media that is available commercially are tested based on mouse embryo performance.
During the gestational period, the human embryo survives with a variable range of conditions in the mother’s womb. The variation between commercial media and human embryos is extensive. The perfect culture media composition and support has not yet been manufactured.
Media were produced in-house or commercially available nutrients, vitamins, and growth factors that are strictly produced by the manufacturers with specific quality standards. Embryologists widely use commercially available media.
But the production of in-house synthetic sequential media has its own advantages. The IVF program is totally independent, capable of accommodating unexpected situations, the variation between different bathes of in-house media is a major issue to be addressed.
There was a long-lasting debate with the variation between commercial media and in-house produced sequential media. Practically, it is realized that in-house produced media has certain advantages over commercially available media and therefore IVF laboratories today choose to invest in in-house media than commercially ones, with security tests and certification.
The great challenge for the embryologist is to use sequential media or single-step culture media. There is no evidence supporting either option. According to the need of the laboratory, the choice is made. In the sequential system, one type of medium is used for the first three days and is then replaced by a different composition for 5-6 days.
But in the case of a single-step culture medium, only one type of medium is used for the complete process. It is common practice in the IVF lab to use the improved version of one-step media.
It is vital to analyze the basic aspects such as medium components, environmental conditions they are exposed to, and the biochemistry in the culture media for optimal performance in the laboratory.
The potential culture media are enriched by ‘protectors’ and ‘promoters’ with the addition of several factors such as amino acids, phosphatase, insulin, glucose, trace elements, and antibiotics.
The basic components to promote human embryos in the future media are petite growth factors. The promising elements should always be considered as the growth factor to enrich culture media.
It is observed that the addition of certain growth factors affects gene expression at the blastocyst stage. One well-known disadvantage with the additional growth factor is block apoptosis. Apoptosis serves a great role in culture media.
It eradicates the genetic abnormal cells during embryo development. It is vital to effectively weigh the pros and cons of the growth factors on embryo development and make an informed decision.
Another most important medium is the protein source. Albumin is the most commonly used protein source that produces hormones, energy, vitamins, and other factors. It helps in maintaining pH, osmotic pressure, and scavenging toxic substances.
Zhu et al., have investigated and concluded that the protein source influences the birth weight in humans. Furthermore, an investigation is required in order to determine the safest protein source for human culture without any negative impacts.
Incubators are the most important equipment in the IVF laboratory that helps to monitor the environmental condition and accommodate embryos safely.
As the technology advances the incubators are available with various features with different characteristics and control over the internal environment for the optimal condition.
Incubators enable to control of environmental variables such as temperature, osmotic pressure, pH for the culture medium, and air quality which act as a potential stressor that affects embryo development. The recent technology incubators are enabling to achieve optimal stability and are capable of adapting to constant changes.
Benchtop incubators are mostly preferred for clinical use with an optimal embryo culture environment. New trends are challenging for practicing embryologists in the IVF laboratory. It is vital to clearly document the benefits to realize the changes within the clinical practice and establish them effectively.
The additional factor vital to take into consideration in embryo culture is pH. pH depends on the various gases that are present in the culture incubator environment. An optimal gas atmosphere with specific pH is required to protect the gamete function and embryo development.
Oxygen concentration is crucial in the IVF laboratory as it regulates pH atmospheric respirations. The optimal range of oxygen contraction is in the range of 2-8% to enhance embryo development and increase the fertilization rates.
The overall air quality in the environment in the IVF laboratory is crucial. Best air purifiers are to be installed with effective filters that remove VOCs present in the air.
Best air purifiers with true HEPA and activated carbons effectively remove particulates and VOCs in the IVF laboratory environment and enhance the air quality to secure embryo development within and outside the environment.
An air purification system with higher specifications is preferred to enhance the air quality in the IVF laboratory. Enhanced air quality has positive effects on laboratory measures and patient outcomes with increased success rates.
The embryo metabolism, meiotic function, and gamete behavior are highly affected by the temperature range the embryo is exposed to. Usually, the regulated temperature for embryo culture is 37-degree Celsius inside an incubator.
Both the temperature and humidity levels work hand in hand to protect the stability in embryo culture. The optimal humidity level ensures the reduced risk of evaporation. Hence optimal temperature and humidity is kept under control for the stability of the embryo culture
Enhancement in technologies has introduced new equipment with various characteristics that ensure an optimal environment for embryo culture. It is vital to ensure the optimal pH, temperature, humidity, and culture media are under control.
It is to be taken under care while including the growth factors and protein sources in the embryo culture. One and all it is vital to maintain the enhanced air quality in the IVF laboratory.
AerMax 500- air cleaner is the best air purification system that filters out the very fine particulates of size 0.1 microns effectively removes VOCs in the environment and deactivates the microorganisms in the environment.
AerMax 500-air cleaner provides you with the best air quality monitoring system that enables you to ensure the air quality in your environment alerts you when there is a need for replacement of filters and helps you use the air purifier effectively.