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Spectroscopy is known as the measurement and interpretation of electromagnetic radiation emitted or absorbed, when ions, atoms or molecules of a sample move from one energy state to another energy state.
Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy UV-Vis spectroscopy is a type of absorption spectroscopy, which utilizes the radiation in the UV range and adjacent visible range of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum. The absorption wavelength mainly ranges from 100 - 700 nm.
There are two absorbance laws, related to the principle of uv-vis spectroscopy, namely, Beer law and Lambert law.
The intensity of a beam of monochromatic light decreases exponentially with increase in concentration of absorbing substance. But the law is applicable to dilute solutions only.
When a beam of light passes through a transparent medium, the rate of decrease in intensity with thickness of medium is directly proportional to the intensity of light. The degree of the interactions is dependent on the contraction, there is deviation from the linear relationship between contraction and absorbance.
The difference in energies between the ground state and excited state of an electron is always equal to the amount of radiation absorbed by it. The energy absorbed appears as heat in the solution. Thus, the above paragraphs have shed light on knowledge in the principle of UV-Vis spectroscopy.