Distillation relies on evaporation to purify water. Contaminated water is heated to form steam. Inorganic compounds and large non-volatile organic molecules do not evaporate with the water and are left behind.

The steam then cools and condenses to form purified water. However the disadvantages of distillation are the energy required for stem generation, water required for coolant and the slow output. In case any impurities that has lower boiling point than that of water would be carry forwarded to the distillate thus causing distillated water to be contaminated. Other problems associated with distillation are the maintenance, storage and conformity on the water quality delivered.

ASTM Type 3 water is defined as water produced from a desirable purification process whose conductivity is less 0.25μS/cm and TOC less than 200ppb

Indion LabQ Water use multiple purification technology to produce ASTM Type 3 water at the rate of 10 liters per hour on demand. Unit has inbuilt water online water conductivity measurement and water delivered can be used immediately for laboratory application

Limitations of Distillation
  • Uses a lot of water and electricity
  • 3KW of electricity to produce 4 liters of distilled water.
  • Only about 94% of the water is used to produced 6% of distilled water.
  • The still needs regular de-scaling.
  • Cant get an on-demand as distilled
  • Water must be produced and stored prior to use which increases the chances of it becoming contaminated either by leaching of material from the container or by contact with the air, which may introduce microorganisms.
  • Need much larger place
  • Probability of breakage
Advantages of alternate technology
  • Membrane based technology
  • Very efficient at removing micro-organisms, pyrogens, suspended solids and colloids.
  • Good for removing high molecular weight organics.
  • Low energy consumption.
  • Low maintenance required.
  • Deionization technology
  • Very effective at removing inorganic salts from raw water supplies.
  • Deionization is the only method capable of meeting the resistivity requirement of Type I or Type II water.
  • Pure water is available on demand – there is no "boil-up" time etc.
  • Very low energy consumption.
  • No wastage of water for cooling etc.
  • Very little maintenance required except for resin replacement.

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